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Our Diabetes Screen test basically consists of Fasting or Random blood sugar (FBS/RBS) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) tests. It is fasting (FBS) when you stop eating around 8pm the previous evening and gets the blood sugar test done on or before 9am the following morning prior to taking any food. However, the test is referred to as random (RBS) when done after meal or at any time during the day other than early in the morning. To perform this test you will need to visit your laboratory of choice for the collection of a blood sample, either very early in the morning while fasting (without breakfast), or at other time during the day depending on whether you want FBS or RBS done.
Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism, i.e. having to do with the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. The amount of glucose in your bloodstream is tightly regulated by the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin that helps the body store and use the sugar and fat from the food we eat. Insulin is always being released in small amounts by the pancreas. Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin.
There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a lifelong disease. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy. The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible.
A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose in the blood. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after you eat. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin so that the blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Serum glucose levels must be evaluated according to the time of day they are performed. For example, a glucose level of 135mg/dl may be abnormal if the patient is in the fasting state, but this level will be within normal limits if the patient had eaten a mean within the last hour.
In general, true glucose elevations indicate diabetes mellitus; however, one must be aware of many other causes of hyperglycaemia (high level glucose in the blood). Similarly also, hypoglycaemia, which is lower than normal glucose level, has many causes. Glucose determinations must be performed frequently in new patients with diabetes to monitor closely the insulin dosage to be administered.
The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in the blood for the past 3 months. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% means a higher risk of having diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes.
Disclaimer: Laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. Test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. The meaning of your tests results will be explained by your healthcare providers, based on the overall clinical scenario.